Hu Ng D N Thay D I M Ng D Ng M C D Nh Tren Mac OSX
Low birth weight caused by intrauterine growth restriction may be a risk factor for renal impairment in the adult life. A cross-sectional study. 71 children aged 8 to 13 years living in the community of São Paulo, Brazil, were included in the study. Gestational age was within the normal range. Birth weight (range, 2,052 to 3,560 g) divided into quartiles: 2,500 g or less; 2,501 to 2,740 g; 2,741 to 3,000 g; and greater than 3,000 g. Birth weight ascertained by birth records in 43 and by recall in 28 participants. Cystatin C, creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by equations using cystatin C (eGFR(cys)) or creatinine (eGFR(cr)). Overall, mean serum creatinine level was 0.8 +/- 0.01 (SE) mg/dL (range, 0.7 to 1.1 mg/dL); mean plasma cystatin C level was 0.9 +/- 0.02 mg/L (range, 0.5 to 1.6 mg/L), and eGFR(cr) and eGFR(cys) were 102.4 +/- 2.16 (range, 66 to 140) and 91.8 +/- 2.46 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (range, 49 to 139 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), respectively. No differences were found for serum creatinine or eGFR(cr) values among the birth-weight quartiles. There was a significant linear trend of increasing cystatin C levels (decreasing eGFR(cys)) in the lower birth-weight quartile groups (P = 0.002 and P = 0.02, respectively). Systolic blood pressure correlated with plasma cystatin C level (r = 0.31; P = 0.008) and eGFR(cys) (r = -0.26; P = 0.028). Covariance analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index for age compared with standards of the National Center for Health Statistics and expressed as a z score, and systolic blood pressure showed that cystatin C values remained greater in the lowest than highest birth-weight quartile (1.01 +/- 0.05 versus 0.83 +/- 0.05 mg/L; P = 0.02). Ascertainment of birth weight by recall in some participants. Lack of measurement of microalbuminuria, absence of direct GFR measurement, and small sample size. Lower birth weight is associated with higher levels of cystatin C but not creatinine in 8-13 yr. old children born
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Nitromethane, methanol, and oil are the common components of radio-controlled (R/C) vehicle fuels. Nitromethane can cause a false elevation of serum creatinine concentration as measured by the widely used Jaffe colorimetric method. We gathered data from our poison control system and from previously published case reports to see if a correlation exists between serum methanol concentrations and spuriously elevated serum creatinine concentrations after human exposures to R/C fuel. The California Poison Control System (CPCS) computerized database was queried for all cases of human exposure to R/C vehicle fuel reported between December 1, 2002 and December 1, 2004. Serum creatinine and methanol concentrations were recorded when available, as was the method used to determine serum creatinine. A MEDLINE search was used to obtain previously published cases of human nitromethane exposure associated with falsely elevated creatinine concentrations. During the 2-year period, serum creatinine concentrations were recorded in 7 of 26 R/C fuel exposures (all ingestions), and 6 of these were abnormal (range of 1.9-11.5 mg/dL). In this series, the higher the serum creatinine concentration measured by Jaffe method, the higher the serum methanol concentration. The MEDLINE search yielded data from six previously published case reports on this topic. The data from these case reports seem to follow the trend seen in our case series. These data suggest that a spuriously elevated serum creatinine (by Jaffe method) may have value as an early surrogate marker of methanol poisoning in those who ingest R/C fuel. Also, the degree to which the serum creatinine is elevated may indicate the severity of methanol poisoning.
Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR, or NMR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are commonly used for metabolomics and metal analysis in urine samples. However, creatinine quantification by NMR for the purpose of normalization of urinary metals has not been validated. We assessed the validity of using NMR analysis for creatinine quantification in human urine samples in order to allow normalization of urinary metal concentrations. NMR and ICP-MS techniques were used to measure metabolite and metal concentrations in urine samples from 10 healthy subjects. For metabolite analysis, two magnetic field strengths (600 and 700MHz) were utilized. In addition, creatinine concentrations were determined by using the Jaffe method. Creatinine levels were strongly correlated (R 2 =0.99) between NMR and Jaffe methods. The NMR spectra were deconvoluted with a target database containing 151 metabolites that are present in urine. A total of 50 metabolites showed good correlation (R 2 =0.7-1.0) at 600 and 700MHz. Metal concentrations determined after NMR-measured creatinine normalization were comparable to previous reports. NMR analysis provided robust urinary creatinine quantification, and was sufficient for normalization of urinary metal concentrations. We found that NMR-measured creatinine-normalized urinary metal concentrations in our control subjects were similar to general population levels in Canada and the United Kingdom. Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mortality after major hepatectomy remains high and is frequently related to post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF). Other than pre-existing liver disease and a small future liver remnant, few patient factors or early postoperative indicators identify patients at elevated risk for PHLF and mortality. Data on demographics, comorbidities, operative procedures and postoperative laboratory trends were reviewed for patients submitted to major hepatectomy (at least three Couinaud segments) for malignancy during 1998-2013. These factors were compared among patients who died within 90 days, survivors who met the 50-50 criteria and all remaining survivors. A total of 1528 patients underwent major hepatectomy during the study period. Of these, 947 had metastatic colorectal cancer and underwent resection of a median of four segments. Overall, 49 patients (3.2%) died within 90 days of surgery and 48 patients (3.1%) met the 50-50 criteria for PHLF; 30 of these patients survived 90 days. Operative blood loss was higher in patients who died within 90 days compared with survivors (1.0 l versus 0.5 l; P
There is scarce information about the effects of different doses and enteric-coated preparation of aspirin on platelet function, especially in Asian people, evaluated by the measurement of urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (dTXB2). The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of different doses, enteric-coated preparation of aspirin, sex and also the effects of timing of urine collection on urinary dTXB2 level in healthy volunteers. Thirty healthy volunteers were included. Each volunteer took three preparations of aspirin (aspirin 81 mg, enteric-coated aspirin 300 mg and aspirin 300 mg) for 7 days. Urine dTXB2 level was measured at baseline, day 3, and day 7 after taking each preparation of aspirin. There was no significant difference in the effects of different doses of aspirin (81 vs. 300 mg, 50.7 vs. 61.8 ng/mmol creatinine, P = 0.248), preparations (enteric-coated vs. nonenteric-coated aspirin, 61.8 vs. 67.9 ng/mmol creatinine, P = 0.527) and time of urine collection (day 3 vs. day 7, 51.7 vs. 49.9 ng/mmol creatinine, P = 0.448). Female volunteers showed a trend to have higher urinary dTXB2 than male volunteers at baseline and after taking aspirin. This study showed no significant difference in urinary dTXB2 level after taking different doses and enteric-coated preparation of aspirin in healthy volunteers.
We report a case of a renal transplant patient who was maintained on tacrolimus and diltiazem therapy and developed tacrolimus toxicity leading to reversible acute kidney injury when started on ranolazine. A 62-year-old Caucasian male status post renal transplant in 2009 (on prednisone and tacrolimus) was evaluated for ischemic heart disease and was initiated on ranolazine 500 mg tablets twice daily, which was later increased to 1000 mg twice daily. After 2 weeks, he developed fatigue, loss of appetite, tremors, and decreased urine output and was admitted to our hospital. His other significant medications included enalapril 2.5 mg and diltiazem 240 mg daily. The patient was awake and alert, but lethargic. He was found to be bradycardic with a heart rate of 42/min. The rest of his physical examination was benign. His electrocardiogram revealed sinus bradycardia. Laboratory studies revealed serum creatinine of 2.4 mg/dL from a baseline of 1.5 mg/dL (stable for the past 2 years). The tacrolimus trough was elevated at 14 ng/mL, which decreased after stopping ranolazine, reaching 7 ng/mL after 3 days, while continuing the same dose of tacrolimus. His creatinine trended downward and reached his baseline of 1.5 mg/dL over the next 2 days. His bradycardia and other symptoms resolved after cessation of ranolazine. He was discharged to follow up, to initiate an alternate agent for ischemic heart disease. Specific pharmacokinetic studies are warranted to study these drug interactions, and tacrolimus levels should be closely monitored in transplant patients who initiate ranolazine treatment.
Hemodialysis patients are at increased risk for bone fracture and sarcopenia. There is close interplay between skeletal muscle and bone. However, it is still unclear whether lower skeleta