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Colton Cox
Colton Cox

I Witness


Before a prosecutor begins a trial, there is much work to be done. The prosecutor has to become familiar with the facts of the crime, talk to the witnesses, study the evidence, anticipate problems that could arise during trial, and develop a trial strategy. The prosecutor may even practice certain statements they will say during trial.




I Witness



One of the first steps in preparing for trial is talking to witnesses who could be called to testify in court. A witness is a person who saw or heard the crime take place or may have important information about the crime or the defendant.


Both the defense and the prosecutor can call witnesses to testify or tell what they know about the situation. What the witness actually says in court is called testimony. In court, the witness is called to sit near the judge on the witness stand. In order to testify, witnesses must take an oath to agree or affirm to tell the truth.


To avoid surprises at trial and to determine which of the witnesses to call to testify, the prosecutor talks to each witness to find out what they may say during trial. These conversations will help the prosecutor decide whom to call as a witness in court.


Another important part of trial preparation is reading every report written about the case. Based on information in the reports and the information from witnesses, the prosecutor determines the facts of the case.


Are there cross-linguistic differences in eye-witness memory? Can patterns in our linguistic environment influence what we remember about the events we witness? In this paper we identify a cross-linguistic difference in how English and Spanish speakers describe the same events, and find that there is a corresponding cross-linguistic difference in eye-witness memory.


In this paper, we investigate whether agentivity in event descriptions also affects eye-witness memory. If events would normally be described less agentively in your linguistic community, would you be less likely to pay attention to and remember the agents of those events than if they were normally described more agentively? Previous work has examined the role of linguistic framing in eye-witness memory within a language by presenting participants with different descriptions of the same event, for example varying the vividness of verbs, and measuring effects on memory (e.g., Gentner & Loftus, 1979; Loftus & Palmer, 1974).


In addition to equivalent memory for agents of intentional events, English and Spanish speakers did not differ in their memory for the orientation of objects in the object-orientation memory task (M = 75.09, SE = 1.42 and M = 73.53, SE = 1.42, respectively), t(208) = .77, n.s. This helps ensure that the cross-linguistic differences in eye-witness memory for accidents are not due to more general differences in memory capacity between the two groups.Footnote 8


Rather than absolute levels of performance, the key finding here is a reliable difference in eye-witness memory between speakers of two different languages, specifically in the case of accidental events. The difference constitutes about 10% of the measurement range (from chance performance at 50% to a ceiling of 100%) and is within the typical range of effect sizes in eye-witness memory research (see Shapiro & Penrod, 1986, for a review).


These findings suggest that our eye-witness memories for events may be influenced by the languages we speak. Speakers of different languages remember different things about the same events. Whether or not we are likely to remember who did what appears to pattern with how such events are normally described in our language community.


It is important to review North Carolina laws that might apply to your particular situation if you witnessed a car accident in Monroe, Mooresville, Charlotte, or elsewhere. Contact our North Carolina car accident attorneys at Arnold & Smith, PLLC, to talk about your specific situation.


While it is noble that you want to help other people, you do not want to get injured at the car crash scene that you have just witnessed. Stop your car a safe distance away from the scene of the collision and turn on your hazard lights. Stay safe when getting out of your car and approaching the crash scene.


If you have witnessed a car crash but do not know how you can help the victims, speak with a North Carolina car accident attorney as soon as possible. Schedule a consultation with our attorneys at Arnold & Smith, PLLC, to discuss your situation. Call (704) 370-2828 to receive a video or phone consultation with our lawyers to explore your legal options or fill out our contact form. Now taking cases throughout North Carolina with offices in Uptown Charlotte, Mooresville and Monroe.


Summary:The Witness Relocation Program provides rental assistance in the form of Section 8 housing vouchers for the relocation of witnesses in connection with efforts to combat violent crimes that occur in and around public, Indian, and other HUD-assisted housing. Since its inception in 1996, HUD's Office of Inspector General (OIG) has used this program to successfully relocate hundreds of witnesses and their families throughout the United States.


Purpose:The Witness Relocation Program is designed to offer protection to persons who are cooperating as witnesses in the government's efforts to combat violent crimes occurring in and around public, Indian, and other HUD-assisted housing. Law enforcement agencies, with the written concurrence of the appropriate prosecutorial entity, may request the emergency relocation of a witness (and their immediate family) that is assisting law enforcement in a criminal matter and fears retribution, or has been threatened as a result of the assistance and/or testimony provided.


The OIG facilitates the protection of witnesses by removing them and their immediate families from potential danger and relocating them to a secure area selected by the OIG in cooperation with the relevant federal, state, tribal, or local law enforcement agencies.


Eligible Customers:Witnesses to violent crimes occurring in or around public, Indian, or other HUD-assisted housing that cooperate with the relevant governmental law enforcement and prosecutorial agencies in their investigation and prosecution of the perpetrators are eligible for the program. The witness (and their immediate family) is not required to be a current resident of the aforementioned HUD-assisted housing in order to be considered eligible for the Witness Relocation Program, but must be otherwise eligible to receive Section 8 housing voucher assistance. Final determination of program eligibility is made by the OIG and HUD's Office of Public and Indian Housing.


The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 (P.L. 110-161, enacted 12/26/07) designated $200 million in rental vouchers for all tenant protection activities, including Witness Relocation vouchers. The OIG requested approximately $324,000 of this funding to relocate witnesses and their families to housing in other localities.


If you witness nursing home abuse, you should report the incident to the proper authorities. Reporting abuse varies from state to state, but it is important for you to follow the steps to properly document the incident.


If you are unsure whether a situation you have witnessed would be considered abuse, it is best to report the matter to authorities. Provide the people who understand these cases with detailed information about the situation to help them decide if abuse has occurred.


Although you may become angry when you witness nursing home abuse, it is important to remain calm. You should stand up for the resident who is suffering from abuse, but you should not lash out at staff or try to intervene physically.


If you witness nursing home abuse and follow all the steps to report it, but you feel as though no one is taking your concerns seriously, you may need to hire counsel. With Pintas & Mullins Law Firm on your side, we can hold nursing homes accountable for any neglect and abuse that occurs. Call us today at (800) 842-6336, and we will discuss the particular situation in your case.


A witness is a person who saw a crime or was a victim of a crime. A witness can be subpoenaed (ordered to attend court) as set out in the Criminal Code of Canada or by a criminal proceeding in the NWT. Witnesses are called to court to answer questions about a case. The information a witness gives in court is called testimony and is used as evidence to set out the facts of the alleged crime.


If you were a victim of a crime or witness to one, you may receive a subpoena telling you when you have to come to court, and who is calling you to court. The Crown prosecutor or defense lawyer will probably talk to you to find out what you know about the case before they decide to call you as a witness. At this stage you do not have to answer their questions unless you want to; but if either lawyer subpoenas you as a witness, you must go to court.


Ask the lawyer who subpoenaed you if you are eligible to apply for witness expense assistance. Witnesses who are required to attend court in a community outside of their home community can receive assistance with the expenses involved in travelling to another community. If you have been subpoenaed by the prosecution lawyer (Crown or PPSC), please contact the Civilian Witness Travel Coordinator at 867-669-6900.


When the trial starts, you may have to wait outside the courtroom until it is time for you to testify if the judge is concerned that listening to the trial could change your testimony. Depending on the situation, you may have to wait with other witnesses and the accused. The police and the sheriffs will be there to provide security but if you are uncomfortable being near other witnesses or the accused you should ask the lawyer who subpoenaed you if you can wait in a separate room.


Don't talk about your testimony with anyone until you testify. You can talk to other people about the case you have finished testifying, but if it is a jury trial you cannot speak to any member of the jury at any time. If anyone tries to get you to alter your testimony, tell the Crown attorney or the police right away. Harassing or attempting to influence a witness is a crime punishable by up to 10 years in jail. 041b061a72


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